What is the meaning of causative usage in classical Chinese
Examples of causative usage
Preface to Mei Shengyu's Collection of Poems
If you hear that poets are few and poor, how can you? Most of the poems handed down by the world come from the words of the poor in ancient times. Those who possess everything but cannot give it to the world like to be free from mountains and rivers, and often find it strange to see insects, fish, plants, wind, clouds, birds and beasts. There is a melancholy of sorrow, feelings and indignation, which is aroused by resentment, lamented by the widow and the minister, while the poorer the man is, the harder he writes about human feelings, the harder he works. However, it is not poetry that can make poor people, poor people who work later.
Yu Youmei Shengyu, who seldom used Yinbu as an official, promoted progressive scholars, was confined to Yousi and was trapped in prefectures and counties for more than ten years. Fifty years ago, we still follow the development of books to help others, Yu Qi's reserve, can not strive to see the cause. His family, Wanling, was young and used to poetry. He was a boy himself, and his elders were shocked by his speeches. As long as it is, it learns from the doctrine of benevolence and righteousness of the Six Confucian Classics. It is an article, simple and ancient, pure, do not seek to elaborate on the world, the world knows only its poetry. However, when there is no wisdom and folly, the poet must ask for Shengyu. Shengyu is also a poet who is not ambitious and happy to write poetry, so his life is more than poetry. The world knows it, but does not recommend it. King Wenkang sighed when he tasted it and said, "It has not been done in 200 years!" Although he knows it well, he is not recommended. If they were lucky enough to be used in the court as elegant and eulogizing, singing the merits of the Great Song Dynasty and recommending the Qing Temple, and pursuing the authors of Shang, Zhou and Lu Songs, would it not be great! But how could they make them old and frustrated, while poems for the poor are just words of insects and fish, sorrow and lament? The world is happy with their work, and does not know that they will be old for a long time!
There are many Shengyu poems, but they don't tidy up themselves. Xie Jingchu, his wife's brother and son, feared that he was too many to lose. His works since Luoyang and Wuxing were taken as ten volumes. Give a taste of Shengyu poems, but fail to do so, quickly happy Xie Shi's ability is also the next, in order to hide it.
In the next fifteen years, Sheng Yu died in Beijing Normal University with a sudden death. Yu cried and remembered that he had left over a thousand manuscripts because of his family. He also collected 677 old manuscripts, which were fifteen volumes. Whoa! I've gone through Sheng Yu's poetry theory in detail, so it won't go away.
Luling Ouyang preface.
[Note] 1. Mei Shengyu, Mei Yaochen (A.D. 1002-A.D. 1060), a famous poet of the Northern Song Dynasty and friend of Ouyang Xiu.
Examples: Reading texts and translating sentences in classical Chinese reading materials:
His family, Wanling, was young and used to poetry. He was a boy himself, and his elders were shocked by his speeches.
1. One of the keys to interpreting this sentence is to understand the meaning and usage of "surprise". The meaning of "surprise" is surprise, surprise, who is surprised? From the perspective of grammatical structure, suspected "utterance", that is, what is said. This obviously does not make sense, because the subject and predicate can not match. Classical Chinese words are often used flexibly. In this case, we should have a sense of using them flexibly and consider whether they are used flexibly, such as using them. The characteristic of causative usage is that the action expressed by predicate verbs is not produced by the subject, but by the object. The object of this sentence is "elders", that is, elders, fathers and elders, so that "elders" to "surprise", just right, and fully in line with the context.
2. Attention should be paid to translating the usage of causation into "causation..." Surprise. The whole sentence should be translated literally and free translation supplemented.
[Reference Answer] His hometown was in Wanling. He studied poetry when he was young. Since he was a child, he has amazed his parents and elders by writing poems.