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文言文的使动用法什么意思
时间:2019年03月16日

文言文的使动用法什么意思
使动用法举例
《梅圣俞①诗集》序
欧阳修
予闻世谓诗人少达而多穷,夫岂然哉!盖世所传诗者,多出于古穷人之辞也。凡士之蕴其所有,而不得施于世者,多喜自放于山巅水涯之外,见虫鱼草木风云鸟兽之状类,往往探其奇怪。内有忧思感愤之郁积,其兴于怨刺,以道羁臣寡妇之所叹,而写人情之难言,盖愈穷则愈工。然则非诗之能穷人,殆穷者而后工也。
予友梅圣俞,少以荫补为吏,累举进士,辄抑于有司,困于州县,凡十余年。年今五十,犹从辟书,为人之佐,郁其所蓄,不得奋见于事业。其家宛陵,幼习于诗,自为童子,出语已惊其长老。既长,学乎六经仁义之说。其为文章,简古纯粹,不求苟说于世,世之人徒知其诗而已。然时无贤愚,语诗者必求之圣俞;圣俞亦自以其不得志者,乐于诗而发之,故其平生所作,于诗尤多。世既知之矣,而未有荐于上者。昔王文康公尝见而叹曰:“二百年无此作矣!”虽知之深,亦不果荐也。若使其幸得用于朝廷,作为雅、颂,以歌咏大宋之功德,荐之清庙,而追商、周、鲁颂之作者,岂不伟欤!奈何使其老不得志,而为穷者之诗,乃徒发于虫鱼物类、羁愁感叹之言?世徒喜其工,不知其穷之久而将老也!可不惜哉!
圣俞诗既多,不自收拾。其妻之兄子谢景初,惧其多而易失也,取其自洛阳至于吴兴以来所作,次为十卷。予尝嗜圣俞诗,而患不能尽得之,遽喜谢氏之能类次也,辄序而藏之。
其后十五年,圣俞以疾卒于京师,余既哭而铭之,因索于其家,得其遗稿千余篇,并旧所藏,掇其尤者六百七十七篇,为一十五卷。呜呼!吾于圣俞诗论之详矣,故不复云。
庐陵欧阳修序。
[注]①梅圣俞即梅尧臣(公元1002年~公元1060年),北宋著名诗人,欧阳修之友。
例.研读文本,翻译文言文阅读材料中的句子:
其家宛陵,幼习于诗,自为童子,出语已惊其长老。
【例题精讲】
1.解读这个句子的关键之一就是要弄明白“惊”的意义和用法。“惊”的意义是惊异、惊奇,是谁惊异呢?从语法结构看,疑似“出语”,即说的话。这显然讲不通,因为主语和谓语无法搭配。文言词经常活用,遇到这种情况,我们要有活用意识,考虑它是否活用,譬如使动用法。使动用法的特点是谓语动词表示的动作不是主语发出的,而是由宾语发出的。这句话的宾语是“长老”,即长辈、父老,让“长老”来“惊异”,正好合适,而且完全符合语境。
2.翻译时注意,使动用法一般都要翻译成“使……惊”。整个句子要直译为主,意译为辅。
【参考答案】他家乡在宛陵,幼年时就学习诗歌,从他还是个孩童时起,写出诗句来就已使得他的父老长辈惊异了。
What is the meaning of causative usage in classical Chinese
Examples of causative usage
Preface to Mei Shengyu's Collection of Poems
Ou Yangxiu
If you hear that poets are few and poor, how can you? Most of the poems handed down by the world come from the words of the poor in ancient times. Those who possess everything but cannot give it to the world like to be free from mountains and rivers, and often find it strange to see insects, fish, plants, wind, clouds, birds and beasts. There is a melancholy of sorrow, feelings and indignation, which is aroused by resentment, lamented by the widow and the minister, while the poorer the man is, the harder he writes about human feelings, the harder he works. However, it is not poetry that can make poor people, poor people who work later.
Yu Youmei Shengyu, who seldom used Yinbu as an official, promoted progressive scholars, was confined to Yousi and was trapped in prefectures and counties for more than ten years. Fifty years ago, we still follow the development of books to help others, Yu Qi's reserve, can not strive to see the cause. His family, Wanling, was young and used to poetry. He was a boy himself, and his elders were shocked by his speeches. As long as it is, it learns from the doctrine of benevolence and righteousness of the Six Confucian Classics. It is an article, simple and ancient, pure, do not seek to elaborate on the world, the world knows only its poetry. However, when there is no wisdom and folly, the poet must ask for Shengyu. Shengyu is also a poet who is not ambitious and happy to write poetry, so his life is more than poetry. The world knows it, but does not recommend it. King Wenkang sighed when he tasted it and said, "It has not been done in 200 years!" Although he knows it well, he is not recommended. If they were lucky enough to be used in the court as elegant and eulogizing, singing the merits of the Great Song Dynasty and recommending the Qing Temple, and pursuing the authors of Shang, Zhou and Lu Songs, would it not be great! But how could they make them old and frustrated, while poems for the poor are just words of insects and fish, sorrow and lament? The world is happy with their work, and does not know that they will be old for a long time!
There are many Shengyu poems, but they don't tidy up themselves. Xie Jingchu, his wife's brother and son, feared that he was too many to lose. His works since Luoyang and Wuxing were taken as ten volumes. Give a taste of Shengyu poems, but fail to do so, quickly happy Xie Shi's ability is also the next, in order to hide it.
In the next fifteen years, Sheng Yu died in Beijing Normal University with a sudden death. Yu cried and remembered that he had left over a thousand manuscripts because of his family. He also collected 677 old manuscripts, which were fifteen volumes. Whoa! I've gone through Sheng Yu's poetry theory in detail, so it won't go away.
Luling Ouyang preface.
[Note] 1. Mei Shengyu, Mei Yaochen (A.D. 1002-A.D. 1060), a famous poet of the Northern Song Dynasty and friend of Ouyang Xiu.
Examples: Reading texts and translating sentences in classical Chinese reading materials:
His family, Wanling, was young and used to poetry. He was a boy himself, and his elders were shocked by his speeches.
[Exemplary lecture]
1. One of the keys to interpreting this sentence is to understand the meaning and usage of "surprise". The meaning of "surprise" is surprise, surprise, who is surprised? From the perspective of grammatical structure, suspected "utterance", that is, what is said. This obviously does not make sense, because the subject and predicate can not match. Classical Chinese words are often used flexibly. In this case, we should have a sense of using them flexibly and consider whether they are used flexibly, such as using them. The characteristic of causative usage is that the action expressed by predicate verbs is not produced by the subject, but by the object. The object of this sentence is "elders", that is, elders, fathers and elders, so that "elders" to "surprise", just right, and fully in line with the context.
2. Attention should be paid to translating the usage of causation into "causation..."  Surprise. The whole sentence should be translated literally and free translation supplemented.
[Reference Answer] His hometown was in Wanling. He studied poetry when he was young. Since he was a child, he has amazed his parents and elders by writing poems.
 

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